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  • 凉山教育扶贫综述:阻断代际贫困 夯筑发展之基

    2018-02-11 09:34  来源:凉山日报全媒体  责任编辑:杨童旖

    “一村一幼”,农村孩子成长的摇篮。本报记者 冷文浩 摄

    “一村一幼”,农村孩子成长的摇篮。记者 冷文浩 摄

     

    “走啊走,

    我要走进知识的海洋里。

    阿依呀 阿呀咯!

    我要学习知识文化,

    跟着社会主义道路走。

    翻过那座山,趟过那条河,

    我的梦想已起航……”

     

    《祖国之子》,这是凉山一位彝族教师为自己的学生写的歌曲。2017年11月,在央视《魅力中国城》的舞台上,当一群彝族孩子唱着这首歌,从霞光中走出的时候,全场泪目了,凉山的观众泪目了!

     

    教育,对每一个凉山人来说,是心中一个最为沉甸甸的希望!对那些生活在高山峡谷间的每一个家庭,教育是孩子们走出大山的希望;对自治州来说,教育更承载着推动经济社会发展的重任,民族进步的历史责任!

     

    孩子们的梦想,家庭的梦想,自治州的梦想,都在教育这艘大船上启航。

     

    2018年1月15日,中共凉山州委八届四次全会通过了《关于全面深入贯彻落实党的十九大精神加快建设美丽幸福文明和谐新凉山的决定》,再一次把教育摆在了优先发展的位置。

     

    ——要大力实施教育攻坚工程,深入推进教育振兴计划,引进优质教育资源,提升本土教育水平,加快教育现代化进程。

     

    ——要深入实施民族地区15年免费教育。扎实推进“一村一幼”提升工程和“一乡一园”建设,全面推广民族地区“双语”教育。

     

    ——要加强农村义务教育,扩大寄宿制学校建设规模,推进城乡义务教育一体化均衡化发展,

     

    ——要扩大“9+3”免费职教规模,解决一人读书、实现一人就业、带动一家脱贫。


    学前教育:

    在同一起跑线上开跑

     

    下午4点,普格县五道箐乡沙合莫村65岁的村民安子吉惹坐在村幼儿园门口,等着自己的孙女放学。在等孙女的时候,老人还不时侧耳听听幼儿园的老师都在讲啥子。就在安子吉惹等着自己孙女放学的时候,喜德县冕山镇小山村村民吉格依嘎也在往村幼儿园走,他要去接自己4岁多的儿子。

     

    如果在几年前,走进凉山大山深处的山村,对大山里的孩子来说,幼儿园是一个听也没有听说过的事物。而今天,大山深处的彝寨里,村民们也像城里人一样,每天接送孩子上幼儿园了。发生这种改变的原因,是遍布凉山的“一村一幼”建设。

     

    “扶贫先扶智”,扶智从什么地方抓起?彝族聚居区的凉山,幼儿教育成为首先关注的对象。如果说教育是凉山脱贫攻坚的重点,那么,农村,尤其是彝族等少数民族聚居地的农村幼儿教育,则是教育中的短板。

     

    还在2012年,昭觉县在全县做了一项特殊的调查:学前儿童汉语水平调查。调查发现,听不懂汉语授课是彝区教育的共性。

     

    为了让山里的孩子,尤其是彝族等少数民族孩子能够尽可能地与城里的孩子站在同一起跑线上,农村学前教育提上了这个县的议事日程。2013年,昭觉县出台了《关于进一步推进全县学前教育改革发展的实施意见》。这是我州第一个关于彝区儿童学前教育的政府文件。

     

    昭觉县的实践,取得了明显的成果,经过学前教育的彝区农村孩子在进入小学后,没有了“语言关”的障碍,基本上都能够跟上教学进度了。

     

    2015年,四川省委、省政府在大小凉山彝区启动实施“一村一幼”计划,彝区农村孩子学前教育在大小凉山全面展开。

     

    “彝区‘一村一幼’计划”规划以村为单位建幼教点,普及以双语教育为主的学前教育,在彝区2586个建制村设立幼儿教学点,并减免在园幼儿学前3年保教费,省财政出资为每个幼教点选聘两名兼懂汉彝双语的辅导员,给予人均每月2000元的劳务补助。

     

    当年,凉山州就开办了840个村级幼教点,招收了3.88万名农村幼儿入园。2017年,全州已经开办了村级幼教点3070个,设立教学班3925个,全州在园(班)幼儿达到24.59万人。“一村一幼”开办以来,各级财政共投入资金5.4亿元,“一乡一园”已经投资19.6亿元,新建450所乡镇幼儿园,并于今年先后分两批启动建设,确保年底前首批启动的202所乡镇幼儿园完成建设任务,全州基本普及学前三年教育,学前三年毛入园率达到85%以上。

     

    “一村一幼”,一个从无到有的工程。不仅涉及到基础设施建设,更涉及到师资力量的配备。为推进这一工程,凉山州根据彝族等少数民族的居住分布情况,统筹规划,防止盲目开班办学。起步之初,就制定了“分级负责、分年实施”原则,2015年先行在彝区10县启动“一村一幼”计划试点,随后在全州17个县市推开,避免了“一窝蜂”盲目开办而影响办学质量。

     

    为解决校舍难题,凉山州充分整合闲置公共资源,通过改造村委会活动室、学校富余校舍、闲置村小、租用民房、新建等,在全州尚未覆盖学前教育资源的行政村和人口较多、居住集中的自然村设立幼教点,在全州尚未覆盖学前教育资源的行政村和人口较多、居住集中的自然村设立幼教点。采取“一村一幼”、“一村多幼”、“多村一幼”等开办方式,每个点开设1个或多个混龄班,每个班容纳30名左右适龄幼儿。

     

    喜德县的吴哈村面积较大,适龄幼儿较多,加上自然村落分散,“一村一幼”实施之初,吴哈村的“点”办在哪里,村民们争个不停,都想把幼教点办在离家近一些的地方。最后,喜德县在“一村一幼”布局时充分考虑吴哈村的生源特点,开办了两个幼教点。而在得知能让适龄儿童就近上幼儿园,吴哈村一位村民大方地拿出自己闲置的房子,免费租借。

     

    如今,在全州已经建成的3070个村级幼教点中,利用村级活动场所、闲置村小校舍、租用民房等开办的占到了80%以上。在有条件的幼教点,还采取幼教点食堂供餐、中心校送餐、中央厨房送餐、蛋奶模式等形式为幼儿提供午餐,已有2447个幼教点提供了幼儿午餐。

     

    “一村一幼”对凉山来说,是一个前所未有的新事物。孩子们入园了,那么谁来教,教什么才是最为重要的问题。结合凉山实际,结合少数民族教育的实际,结合未来发展的需求,凉山州成立了“一村一幼”辅导员用书编委会,组织州内学前教育专家、幼儿园园长、骨干教师深入昭觉、布拖县等彝区农村调研,编写印发《凉山州“一村一幼”辅导员用书》、彝汉双语《“一村一幼”乖娃娃标准》、幼儿手绘本图书等彝族孩子容易接受的乡土教材。在解决师资来源方面,凉山州制定《凉山州村级幼教点辅导员聘用条件和程序》、《凉山州“一村一幼”学前教育辅导员培训方案》,要求11个民族聚居县、安宁河6县市少数民族乡镇,必须选聘双语辅导员。现在,全州7680名辅导员,专科以上学历人员占55%,其中,学前教育专业占比达到了44.5%。


    凉山孩子,用五彩画笔绘出心中梦想。本报记者 钟源 摄

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    职业教育

    在同一个梦想中生长

     

    大小凉山彝区“9+3”免费教育计划是彝区藏区教育扶贫的惠民工程,其主要目标是每年组织一批大小凉山彝区13个县(区),的学生到内地免费接受职业教育。进入“9+3”免费教育计划的学生,将免除每生每年2000元学费;补助一、二年级每生每年3000元,三年级1500元生活费。自2014年实施彝区“9+3”免费职业教育计划以来,凉山州已先后输送上万名“9+3”彝族学子到30所内地中职学校就读。

     

    则阿舍,盐源县一个山村的家境贫困家庭学生。“我成绩不是很好,家里还有弟弟、妹妹,父亲让我初中毕业就去打工,可我真的很想继续读书。”

     

    “9+3”免费教育计划,圆了则阿舍的求学梦,2017年,已经是他在四川省商务学校学习的第三年了。 

     

    “如果没有彝区‘9+3’这个政策,我就不能继续读书了。”则阿舍发自肺腑地说。

     

    和则阿舍一样,现在就读于四川省贸易学校的马海阿依莫也来自一个贫困家庭。“9+3”免费教育计划,为家在越西县大瑞乡林沟村的她铺就了继续求学的路。

     

    “9+3”免费教育计划为大小凉山的彝族学子打开了一扇通向外面世界的大门。

     

    职业教育,凉山教育扶贫的关键。凉山州把大力发展职业教育写入《凉山州教育扶贫专项实施方案》。为此,州级财政每年投入2000万元用于职业教育基础能力建设和职业培训,每年选送4400名中职毕业生到内地29所优质中职学校就读。

     

    把职业教育和贫困家庭学生就业统筹谋划。“9+3”免费教育计划,贫困家庭就业教育计划在培训学校选择上、培训专业设置上与凉山的脱贫攻坚一体规划。承担“9+3”免费职业教育计划的学校,根据凉山“一村一幼”、“一乡一所”建设的人力资源需求,专门为“9+3”设置幼教、医护等专业。这些学生毕业后,不仅能够顺利就业,同时也解决了凉山脱贫攻坚的基层人才急需问题。四川省档案学校2014至2016年共招收彝区学生共841名,学前教育专业就有637名。凉山派驻该校的干部阿布科黑介绍,2014级已有不少毕业生回到凉山就业。

     

    2017年11月,来自昭觉县的30多名彝族农民工走进了江苏扬州市洪泉实业集团驻成都新能源汽车生产基地。这批从山寨中走出来的农民工,在来之前经过了严格的电焊、切割等职业培训。从这个时候开始,他们成为最现代化的汽车生产流水线上的员工。

     

    2017年10月,昭觉县与洪泉实业集团达成劳务慈善扶贫合作协议,开展新型农民素质提升工程技能培训定向就业,由该公司在昭觉培训1000名至3000名青壮年贫困彝族农民,并分期分批输送到四川等地的九大生产基地工作。

     

    这些员工的工资第一年是每月3000元、第二年是4000元,第三年是5000元,三年后转为正式员工,工资可超过7000元。

     

    职业教育扶贫,实现了解决一人读书、实现一人就业、带动一个家庭脱贫致富的目标。如今,凉山州有中等职业学校18所,开设了护理、助产、学前教育、旅游与饭店管理等47个专业,州内中职在校学生达到了2.9万人,初中毕业生基本实现“应读尽读”。与此同时,凉山职业教育另外一个大规划正在落地,以凉山民族师范学校为基础,投资10.4亿元,筹建的四川民族幼儿师范高等专科学校正在推进。


    均衡教育

    在同一片蓝天下飞翔

     

    2014年6月,四川省启动了《大小凉山彝区教育振兴行动计划》,计划每年新增投入3.46亿元扶持大小凉山教育发展,大力改善办学条件、扩大中小学寄宿制规模、发展学前教育和高中阶段教育。

     

    《大凉山彝区教育振兴行动计划》实施时间为2014年至2018年,范围为盐源、普格、布拖、金阳、昭觉、喜德、越西、甘洛、美姑、雷波等10个县。《计划》统筹了第二个《四川省民族地区教育发展十年行动计划》、第二期学前三年行动计划、教育扶贫提升工程等。通过分类指导、分层推进、“一县一策”的原则,全面提升大凉山彝区教育发展水平。

     

    ——2018年,盐源、昭觉、喜德、甘洛、雷波五县教育事业主要指标达到全省平均水平,普格、布拖、金阳、越西、美姑五县教育事业主要指标达到全省民族地区平均水平。

     

    “大凉山彝区教育振兴计划”是凉山全面推进教育均衡发展所启动的第一项工程。

     

    义务教育均衡发展是教育公平的基石,均衡发展是义务教育的战略性任务。让每个孩子享有受教育的机会,享有更好更公平的教育。这句话对凉山来说,更具有深远的意义和现实的发展需求。

     

    凉山,六万多平方公里的土地,高山与峡谷,不仅阻断了交通的畅通,也让孩子们上学的步伐异常艰难。就如同自治州的二元经济一样,彝族聚居县教育与安宁河流域县、市呈明显的“二元”格局,彝族聚居县教育发展滞后;而在县域内、城乡间教育发展也不均衡。

     

    破解教育发展不均衡,始终是自治州全力以赴攻克的堡垒。

     

    2016年9月,被称为“悬崖村”的昭觉县支尔莫乡阿土勒尔村小学开学了,这个学期,报名的学生人数比往年翻倍,达到了289人。而从这个学期开始,“悬崖村”村小改为全寄宿制,除了寒暑假和重大节日,学生全部住校,再也不用每周攀爬天梯。

     

    就在“悬崖村”村小开学的时候,凉山州教育局已经完成了全州19个类似“悬崖村”的村小的寄宿制学校建设,5个县(市)的3所乡镇中心校、9所村小学,共1292名学生和“悬崖村”的孩子一样,开始在寄宿制学校学习。这些学生,按照每天15元、每月补助30天标准,每年有4500元补助。

     

    建于1988年的凉山民族中学,是全州最大的寄宿制学校。建校30年,已经成为凉山州彝族等少数民族学生走向高等学府的摇篮,许多彝族学生从高寒地区走下大山,从这里走向自己的未来。

     

    凉山,把寄宿制教育作为解决彝区农村教育资源布局分散、教职员工水平参差不齐,教学质量难以提升的抓手。大力推进寄宿制教育。如今,全州有寄宿制中小学校820所,寄宿制学生达到27.82万人,享受寄宿制生活补助的学生达到21.517万人,占全州寄宿制学生总数的77.34%,

     

    到2017年底,全州投入资金48.78亿元,规划新、改扩建寄宿制学校566所,在校学生将达52.66万人,其中寄宿制学生将达37.17万人,寄宿制学生占义务教育阶段学生数的50.72%。

     

    而根据《凉山州寄宿制教育发展规划(2016-2020年)》,到自治州全面小康之年,全州将投入资金61.72亿元,新、改扩建寄宿制学校660所,最大限度满足单边2.5公里以上上学路程的学生到寄宿制学校就读。到那时,有更多彝区农村学子将进得来、留得住、学得好。

     

    “改薄”是义务教育薄弱学校改造计划的简称。上课教室拥挤,睡觉床铺拥挤,基础设施落后,教学设备简陋,这是凉山贫困地区学校普遍存在的状况。2014年,凉山全面启动了改善贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校基本办学条件计划。

     

    2016年8月,凉山州出台了《凉山州农村义务教育薄弱学校改造补助资金管理(暂行)办法》在这个“办法”中,规定的“校舍及设施建设类”和“设备及图书购置类”改革两类项目中,要新建、改建和修缮必要的教室、实验室、图书室,以及必要的运动场等教学设施;小学班额超过56人、初中班额超过66人的义务教育学校的县镇“大班额”要扩容改造。同时,要建设校园内信息化网络基础设施。

     

    2017年,中央、省、州各级投入了5亿多元,完成了近300所学校“改薄”, 随着这些工程的完成,我州贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校的基本办学条件得到了改善。

     

    教育均衡发展,是教育布局的全面均衡发展。根据我州彝区、藏区及安宁河地区的不同发展状况,凉山开始把均衡教育向纵深推进——强化学校布局调整的改革,对全州各级各类学校建设进行科学规划、合理布局,加快推动凉山教育事业在新形势下改革发展,努力实现办人民满意教育的目标。

     

    这个改革目标,不仅涉及到了区域之间、城乡之间、校际之间教育均衡发展。按照“因地制宜,适度集中,统筹规划,分步实施”的原则,通过“撤、并、建”等措施,积极稳妥推进学校布局调整工作。

     

    学校布局调整以举办寄宿制学校为突破口,形成“学前以村办为主,小学向乡镇集中,初中向中心乡镇集中,高中学校向县城集中,新增教育资源向城镇集中”的办学模式。

     

    从2013年凉山“十三五”教育事业发展规划出台,到2017年,教育走过了辉煌的五年。按照凉山“十三五”教育事业发展规划要求,到2020年,全州九年义务教育在校生75万,巩固率90%。这个发展目标已经在2017年全面超额完成,义务教育阶段学生达76.23万人,入学率达99.54%。

     

    教育,凉山脱贫攻坚之重,凉山发展之重!(记者 罗淙)

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